Friday, 2 February 2018

Sarum Rite Candlemas



From the Catholic encyclopedia:-

(More accurately SARUM USE)
"The manner of regulating the details of the Roman Liturgy that obtained in pre-Reformation times in the south of England and was thence propagated over the greater part of Scotland and of Ireland. Other, though not very dissimilar Uses, those of York, Lincoln, Bangor, and Hereford, prevailed in the north of England and in Wales. The Christian Anglo-Saxons knew no other Liturgy than that of the Mother Church of Rome. Their celebrated Synod of Clovesho (747) lays down: "That in one and the same manner we all celebrate the Sacred Festivals pertaining to Our Lord's coming in the Flesh; and so in everything, in the way we confer Baptism, in our celebration of Mass, and in our manner of singing. All has to be done according to the pattern which we have received in writing from the Roman Church" (Canon 13). — "That the Seven Canonical Hours be everywhere gone through with the fitting Psalmody and with the proper chant; and that no one presume to sing or to read aught save what custom admits, what comes down to us with the authority of Holy Scripture, and what the usage of the Roman Church allows to be sung or read" (Canon 15).
St. Osmund, a Norman nobleman, who came over to England with William the Conqueror, and was by him made Bishop of Sarum or Salisbury (1078), compiled the books corresponding to our Missal, Breviary, and Ritual, which revised and fixed the Anglo-Saxon readings of the Roman Rite. With these he appears very naturally to have incorporated certain liturgical traditions of his Norman fellow-countryman who, however, equally with the conquered English, ever sought to do all things in church exactly as was done in Rome. In appreciating the wide-spread Sarum Use, concerning which the extant literature is very copious, it is well to bear in mind that just as the Roman Rite itself has always been patient of laudable local customs, so, in medieval times the adopting of the Sarum Service Books did not necessarily mean the rejecting of existing ceremonial usages in favour of those in vogue at Salisbury, but only the fitting thereof into the framework outlined in the Sarum Missal, Breviary, and other liturgical manuals. Again, it must not be forgotten that the Sarum Use represents in the main the Roman Rite as carried out in the eleventh century, and that the reforms introduced by Gregory VII and his immediate successors which culminated in the thirteenth century Franciscan revision of the Breviary, only very slowly and very partially found their way into the service books of the Gallic and British Churches. Hence, the marked resemblance of the Sarum Use to those of the Dominicans, Calced Carmelites, and other medieval religious orders.
The following are the more noticeable variants of the Use of Sarum from the developed Roman Rite of our own times.
(1) At Mass, as in the Dominican Use, the Sarum priest began by saying a verse of the psalm "Confitemini," with a shortened Confiteor followed by the verse "Adjutorium nostrum in nomine Domini." Nevertheless, at Salisbury every celebrant was bound to have recited the whole psalm "Judica me Deus" in the sacristy before coming to the foot of the altar. The prayer "Aufer a nobis" was said, but not that which now follows it, in lieu of which the priest simply made the sign of the cross and proceeded to read the Officium, or as we call it, the Introit, repeating it not only after its Gloria Patri but also after the psalm-verse which precedes the latter. From the Kyrie to the Offertory the deviations from our actual usage are slight, though on festival days this section of the sacred rite was often enormously lengthened by varied and prolix sequences. Like the Dominican and other contemporaneous Uses, that of Sarum supposes the previous preparation of the chalice (put by the Sarum Missal between the Epistle and Gospel) and thereby materially abbreviates the Offertory ceremonial. According to an archaic usage, still familiar to ourselves from the Roman Good-Friday Rite, the prayer "In spiritu humilitatis" followed in place of preceding the washing of the priest's hands and the psalm "Lavabo" was omitted, so also to the "Orate Fratres" (at Sarum, "Orate Fratres et Sorores") no audible response was made. From the Preface onward through the Canon, the Sarum Mass was word for word and gesture by gesture that of our own Missals, except that a profound inclination of head and shoulders took the place of the modern genuflection and that during the first prayer after the Elevation the celebrant stood with arms stretched out in the form of a cross. As in France and generally in Northern and Western Europe the Benediction given at the breaking of the Sacred Host was not curtailed to the mere pronouncing of the words "Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum" but, more particularly when a bishop officiated, was very solemnly given with a formula varying according to the festival. The Agnus Dei in the Sarum Use was said as by the Dominicans after and not before the Commingling, but the prayers before the priest's Communion were other than those with which we are familiar. The kiss of peace was given as with us but there was no "Domine non sum dignus." The words pronounced by the celebrant at the moment of his own Communion are striking and seem peculiar to the Sarum Missal. They may therefore be fittingly quoted: "Hail for evermore, Thou most holy Flesh of Christ; sweet to me before and beyond all things beside. To me a sinner may the Body of our Lord Jesus Christ be the Way and the Life." The "Quod ore sumpsimus" and some other prayers accompanied the taking of the ablutions, and the Communion and Postcommunion followed as now. But no Blessing was given and the beginning of the Gospel of St. John was recited by the priest on his way from the sanctuary to the sacristy."
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